Particle Physics is a natural phenomenon that occurs at the subatomic level. Objective of Particle Physics is looking for answers to two key questions :
1. What are the fundamental elements of the material.
2. how they interact. Science and pemahamanan is then summarized in a Reference Model (Standard Model).
Region Particle Physics working distance is very small, on the order of fm (femto meter, 1 fm = 10E-15 m or ten rank of minus fifteen meters). It is a subatomic scale. Conversely, energy work area is very large for Particle Physics, in the order of 10E15 eV. For comparison, the working distance of the order of materials science Armstrong ( 1A = 10E-10 m ), with energy work order 10E-5 eV.
Search Builders Matter Particles
Fundamental element is defined as the basic constituent elements of the universe, also called elementary particles or particulate matter builders because of the combination of matter is composed of particles. In the theoretical calculations, the elementary particles is regarded as a point particle.
Interest to know the particle is reflected in the lecture Richard Feynman ( Nobelis 1965 ) in the presence of his students :
if the devastating destruction of human civilization and knowledge, and the only just one short sentence that can be handed down to the next generation, is the most informative short sentences that ?
Answer : " atomic theory, that the material formed by atoms. "
Feynman was mistaken. The knowledge that the material is composed of atoms will allow the next generation to be responsive : that in order to understand the properties of matter are complete, it should be known from what they are made and learn how it interacts constituent of matter.
The view that the the atom is a particle point and can not be divided further postulated by John Dalton in 1803. Unfortunately, the Atom is not a fundamental element. Successive electron discovery by J. J. Thomson ( 1897 ), the nucleus and proton by Rutherford ( 1911 ), and the neutron by Chadwick ( 1932 ) postulated undermine the the atom as a point particle. Elekron then known was one of the fundamental elements making up the material. Particles with a size smaller than an atom ( such as neutrons, protons, and electrons ) are called subatomic particles.
In 1964 Murray Gell-Mann and George Zwei publish new proposals on a point particle. The behavior of hundreds of particles can be described as a combination of the fundamental elements named Q.U.A.R.K
Quark with electrons and then into 2 particles forming the first material found.
Gell-Mann received the Nobel prize in 1969 on donation classifying fundamental elements. The existence of quarks then proved by some experiments with scattering methods.
Anti-particle Dirac first predicted by the Dirac equation. Dirac equation is an equation that successfully mated the concept of special relativity with quantum mechanics. The equation, published in 1928, is dedicated to improving the Schrodinger equation can not be used for relativisik case. Relativistic case is to involve nearly the speed of light. Electrons, for example, is in fact close to the speed of light.
Postulated that every particle has its anti-particle, has the same properties except for the charges. For example, a positron is an anti-particle of the electron, has mass, size, complying with all the laws of conservation that also complied with the electron, but the charge is positive.
What happened when the particle anti-particle meet ? This is called the removal ( annihiliation process ) + Anti Particle Energy particles. This energy is usually carried by special particles ( particles is exchange for each particle interactions is discussed in the next section ), for example, in the example of the electron + positron photon ( also called pair Annihilation ). As per the law of conservation of energy, the photon will also be able to generate electrons + postiron ( called pair production ).
The existence of anti-particles was first proved by Carl Anderson in 1932 at Fermilab, Chicago USA. Anderson fired a charged particle in a bubble chamber containing superheated liquid and surrounded by a magnetic field. The particles will leave traces in the vapor of the liquid, and the charged particles will be deflected by magnetic fields. Direction particles always turn the opposite direction to the anti particle. Carl Anderson won the Nobel Prize in 1935 for their contributions to it.
At the beginning of the creation of the universe, the number of particles with anti its particles are the same, they are in equilibrium. Now, the number of anti-particles is much less than its particles. This is called the " anti-material material problems ", one of the few great works physicist.
Concept Builders Matter Particles
So far, it has been known for some fundamental elements or elementary particles (elementary particles) that make up the material. They are classified into 2 types: quarks and leptons.
Quark has 6 types or flavors (categorized into three families or generations) :
up / down, charm / strange, and top / down. All matter in our universe is formed by the combination of quarks: the quark-anti-quark combinations form a meson, and three combinations of quarks to form baryons. Recently discovered evidence of the existence of five combinations of quarks to form particles, called type pentaquark. Protons and Neutrons, two subatomic particles we know, is a type of baryon.
As quarks, leptons also have 6 types ( also grouped into 3 families or generations ):
electron / electron-neutrino, muon / muon-neutrino, and tau / tau neutrino.
The combination of proton-neutron-electron the atom formed, the combination the atom to form molecules, the molecules aggregate to form a compound or a mixture or solution by naked eyes we can see.